FDT students reaches Octo-Finals at US Nationals
In yet another international tournament FDT\’s students have gone above and beyond and achieved excellent results. Last weekend over 10,000 students from across the US
Below you will find highlights from tournaments and competitions, along with news about students’ successes.
In yet another international tournament FDT\’s students have gone above and beyond and achieved excellent results. Last weekend over 10,000 students from across the US
Last week, FDT capped off its best ever year with a very unique celebration. Instead of gathering in person with a lavish dinner and engaging
We are so proud to announce that FDT\’s own Frankie Cena, who is our founder and CEO, has been given one of the highest honours
This weekend several FDT students competed in the 2020 Canadian Senior National Debate Championships. We are so proud to announce that after competing against the
We are so proud to announce that two FDT students, Nikki Wu and Emily Ni not only broke to elimination rounds but made it to
FDT students don\’t just excel in debate and public speaking. They have a diverse set of interests ranging from sports to acting and also music.
After the massive success of FDT\’s Canadian Public Speaking Contest we were so happy to hear we had been chosen to be featured in Jejune
This weekend several FDT students participated in the Junior National Debate Championships. The championships brought together the best teams across Canada in an incredibly competitive
Over the past two weeks, FDT students have participated in both the Junior UBC Spring High School Tournament and the Senior UBC High School Tournament,
On Sunday many FDT students competed in the online Dora Foundation Vancouver Elementary Debate Tournament. We were so glad to see such eager participation since
Simran Cheema 毕业于 UBC Sauder 商学院，她是该校 12 名双专攻金融和市场营销的学生之一，她拥有独特的创造性和技术性的说服技巧。作为加拿大公共演讲和辩论国家队的前成员，Simran 在 9 年的辩论生涯中完善了她的辩论技能。她在 Crofton House School 开始了她的辩论之旅，在那里她也有幸担任Head Girl，面对超过2500 名观众发言。在整个高中期间，她走遍了全国和世界各地，代表BC省和加拿大参加了数十场国内和国际比赛，稳居顶级辩手和顶级团队。在大学时，Simran 在 UBC 商业传播公共演讲锦标赛中名列第一，并在 JDC West Debate 在加拿大西部团队中名列第三。 Simran 拥有超过 6 年的 FDT 教学经验和 5 年的比赛经验。她是一位充满激情且久经考验的教练，她非常关心学生的学习，并帮助他们取得成功。
Simran Cheema is a graduate of the UBC Sauder School of Business, where she was one of twelve to ever double specialize in both Finance & Marketing, shedding light on her uniquely creative yet technical approach to persuasion. As an alumn of the Canadian National Team for Public Speaking & Debate, Simran has perfected her persuasive skills over a 9 year career in debate. She started her debate journey at Crofton House School where she also had the honour of serving as Head Girl, presenting to audiences larger than 2,500. Throughout high school, she travelled around the country and world, representing BC and Canada at dozens of national and international competitions, consistently securing top speaker and team placements. At the University level, Simran placed 1st overall at the UBC Business Communications Public Speaking Championship, and 3rd overall team in Western Canada through JDC West Debate. With over 6 years of coaching experience at FDT and 5 years of total competition experience, Simran is a passionate and proven instructor who cares deeply about her students’ learning and subsequent success.
Nicole 是 UBC 心理学专业的本科生。除了协助FDT的日常运作外，她还喜欢与学生、员工和客户互动。她为学院创造活跃的氛围，希望学生能在积极的环境中学习。在空闲时间，她会在道场训练或进行户外活动。
Nicole is an undergraduate student majoring in Psychology at UBC. Aside from assisting the daily operation at FDT, she enjoys interacting with students, staff and the customers to create the lively atmosphere in the academy, hoping students can learn under a positive environment. She spends her free time in the dojo or doing outdoor activities.
Jessica 在不列颠哥伦比亚大学攻读公共卫生政策跨学科学士学位，并拥有巴黎政治学院 (SciencesPo Paris) 的政治人文文学学士学位。Jessica 在高中时开始辩论，并参加了全国级别的英语和双语辩论赛。作为一名辩论教练，Jessica 喜欢与学生一起制定适合他们自己学习风格的策略，帮助他们在享受辩论和公共演讲的同时蓬勃发展。Jessica 精通法语。
Jen 是不列颠哥伦比亚大学的理科学生。他擅长辩论，从高中到现在Jen 一直活跃在辩论界。 Jen 拥有 50 多个辩论和评审奖项的记录，包括在 2021 年进入第四届杜伦-牛津-剑桥 ESL 决赛。同年，他被选为代表印度尼西亚国家辩论队参加世界学校辩论锦标赛 (WSDC) ，并在 2022 年作为教练带领队伍进入八强。 Jen 对辩论的热情延伸到他的教学中，他还撰写辩论文章以改进学生用于批判性思维的框架。
Jessica is a student at the University of British Columbia completing an Interdisciplinary Bachelor’s degree in Public Health Policy, and she holds a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree from SciencesPo Paris in Political Humanities. Jessica began debating in high school, and competed at the national level in both English and bilingual tournaments. Jessica’s favourite part of being a debate coach is working with students to develop strategies that work for their own learning style, and then watching them flourish while genuinely enjoying debate and public speaking. Jessica is fluent in French.
Jen is a Science student at the University of British Columbia. He specializes in debating, which he started doing in high school. Jen has a track record of over 50 debating and judging awards, including reaching the ESL Finals of the 4th Durham-Oxford-Cambridge in 2021. In the same year, he was selected to represent Team Indonesia at the World Schools Debating Championships (WSDC), and in 2022 he coached the team to the Octofinals. Jen’s passion for debate extends to his teaching, and he also writes debate articles to improve the frameworks students use for critical thinking.
Dieter 是 UBC大学 计算机科学专业的学生。 2017 年，Dieter 在加拿大全国初级组辩论锦标赛中获得最佳辩手。他还在 2018 年被选为加拿大国家辩论队后备队的成员。学习是一件令人享受的事情。Dieter将确保学生能在一个积极的环境中学习辩论。他很高兴能担任FDT的辩论教练，并期待在 FDT 分享他对辩论的热爱。
Dieter is a student at UBC studying computer science. In 2017, Dieter won top speaker at the Canadian National Junior Debate championship. He was also selected to be a member of the Team Canada development squad in 2018. Learning is worth enjoying, and Dieter wants to ensure that students are in a positive environment. He’s very excited to take on an instructor role, and looks forward to sharing his passions at FDT.
Negar 目前是UBC大学的本科生，攻读政治学学士学位。在管理 FDT 的日常运作时，她希望营造一个支持性的学习环境，让年轻的演讲者和辩手可以自信地表达自己的观点。在 FDT 工作之余，她对政治和社区福利工作充满热情：她为当地议员拉票、在非营利组织和环境组织做志愿者，以及运营当地的联合国儿童基金会俱乐部。她的爱好包括烹饪、诗歌朗诵以及与朋友和家人共度美好时光。 Negar 很高兴成为 FDT 大家庭的一员！
Negar is currently an undergraduate student at the University of British Columbia pursuing a Bachelor of Political Science. In managing the daily operations of FDT, she hopes to foster a supportive learning environment where young speakers can voice their opinions with confidence. Outside her time working at FDT, she pursues her passions for politics and community welfare through canvassing for local MPs, volunteering at non-profit and environmental organizations, and running her local UNICEF club. Her hobbies include cooking, performing slam poetry, and spending quality time with friends and family. Negar is thrilled to be a part of the FDT family!
Dieter 是 UBC大学 计算机科学专业的学生。他喜欢与客户、员工和学生合作，帮助FDT成为一个流畅运行并而成功的学院。在学校和工作之外，Dieter 喜欢承担各种个人编程的项目。 Dieter 很高兴能加入 FDT 大家庭。
Dieter is a computer science student at UBC. He enjoys working with clients, staff, and students to help facilitate a fluid and successful academy. Outside of school and work, Dieter enjoys taking on various personal and engineering projects. Dieter is very excited to join the FDT family.
Vishwa 就读于麦吉尔大学，攻读经济学荣誉学位。 Vishwa 在中学开始参加辩论和公共演讲比赛，并在高中参加了多项国际比赛。他的一些成就包括获得 2021 年全国公共演讲总冠军，两次入围世界个人辩论和公共演讲比赛的决赛，以及进入英国全国议会辩论锦标赛的半决赛。作为一名教练，Vishwa 的学生入围了世界独立辩论和公开演讲锦标赛的决赛，并获得了参加国际Optimist 演讲比赛的资格。 Vishwa 教授辩论和公开演讲，还精通法语。
Vishwa is a second-year student pursuing an Honours Degree in Economics at McGill’s Desautels Faculty of Management. Vishwa started debating and public speaking when he was in middle school. In 2021, he was the Grand Champion of the Canadian National Public Speaking Championship and went on to place 2nd in debating at the World Individual Debate and Public Speaking Championships. Vishwa loves to share his joy and passion for public speaking and debate, and hopes to teach lifelong skills to his students.
Vivienne is a second-year student studying Visual Arts and Business Management at the University of British Columbia. Besides being responsible for facilitating the day-to-day processes at FDT, she enjoys creating personal connections with students, clients, and other staff, to promote a family-like community and positive learning environment within the academy. She also spends a lot of her time volunteering at various organizations, with a strong interest towards environmental related causes. In her downtime, Vivienne likes spending time with friends and family, taking care of her pet chickens, trying new recipes, and being out in nature.
Emma-Jane 正在加州大学伯克利分校攻读数据科学和经济学双学位。 Emma-Jane 有超过五年的辩论经验，参加过地区、省级和全国级比赛。值得注意的是，在通过地区和省级比赛晋级之后，她打入了加拿大国家赛的四分之一决赛。Emma-Jane 在过去三年中一直担任辩论教练。 她致力于帮助学生通过努力练习取得成功，并发挥他们的潜力。
Maja 是不列颠哥伦比亚大学的法语双语本科生，主修政治学，辅修法律与社会。Maja 有超过7年的辩论教学经验。在 Maja 的指导下，她的团队连续三年获得该地区校级第一的奖项，她的私课学生也在国内和国际辩论大赛上取得了好成绩。Maja 拥有指导 6-17 岁各种能力水平学生的经验。作为一个辩手，Maja 有着超过9年的辩论经验，打入国家级大赛。在大学期间，Maja 曾在包括牛津和剑桥在内的多个重大辩论赛中进行辩论，并在 Diefenbaker Cup 和 Pacific Cup 中闯入决赛。除了辩论之外，Maja 还能够指导模拟联合国、公共演讲、诗歌/散文和表演。
Ruby 正在不列颠哥伦比亚大学和Sauder 商学院同时攻读政治学学士学位和管理学硕士学位。 Ruby 在高中时开始辩论和公共演讲，她在安大略省举行的全国青少年公共演讲资格赛中获得第一名——这是她有史以来第一次参加比赛。从那以后，她继续练习和学习，参加省级、全国和全球的比赛。通过决心和坚持，她在 2021 年由韩国线上举办的世界独立辩论和演讲锦标赛中获得世界第一名。Ruby 拥有超过六年的执教经验，曾培养出在国际独立学校演讲比赛中夺得的第一名的冠军、在世界个人公共演讲锦标赛中打入决赛的演讲者，以及无数对公共演讲和辩论感兴趣的初学者。 Ruby 喜欢与她的学生分享她对公共演讲和辩论的热情！
Emma-Jane is completing a double major in Data Science and Economics at the University of California Berkeley. Emma-Jane has been involved in debate for five years, competing regionally, provincially, and nationally. Notably, after advancing through regionals and provincials, she placed as a quarter-finalist at Canadian Nationals. In addition, Emma-Jane has coached debate for the past three years. Emma-Jane seeks to help students achieve success and their potential through hard work.
Maja Grandinetti is a French bilingual undergraduate student at the University of British Columbia, majoring in Political Science and minoring in Law and Society. Maja has coached debate for 7 years starting in high school. Under Maja’s guidance, her team took home the award for Top School in the region three years in a row, and her private students have excelled to reach national and international accomplishments. She has experience coaching students aged 6-17 at all ability levels. Competitively, Maja has been debating for 9 years reaching the National level in high school. In university, Maja has debated at multiple tournaments including Oxford and Cambridge, and broken to finals at Diefenbaker Cup and Pacific Cup. On top of debate, Maja enjoys and coaches Model United Nations, Public Speaking, Poetry/Prose, and Acting.
Ruby is in her third year at the University of British Columbia completing a Bachelor’s degree in political science and a Master’s degree in management simultaneously. Ruby started debating and public speaking in high school, where she placed 1st in Ontario at the Junior National Public Speaking Qualifiers – her first tournament. From there, she continued to practice and learn, competing in tournaments provincially, nationally and globally; and through determination and persistence, she placed 1st in the world at the World Independent Debate and Public Speaking Championships hosted virtually by South Korea in 2021. Ruby loves to share her passion for both public speaking and debate with her students, and is always in the mood to hear a good joke!
Noah 是不列颠哥伦比亚大学哲学专业的硕士生，专修伦理学和心灵哲学。他还拥有 UBC 的荣誉哲学学士学位，获得了全额奖学金。Noah 在高中开始辩论，他在许多国际辩论赛中打入淘汰赛，赢得了加拿大国家赛的最佳辩手。Noah 还曾担任 21 个不同比赛的首席裁判，其中包括三个不同的国家级辩论赛。Noah 已经执教辩论七年，在2019-2020年任UBC辩论社培训总监，2021-2022年是丹麦国家辩论队教练。Noah 所教过的学生中有 11 人入选了加拿大国家辩论队。他的学生还参加了许多重要的国际比赛并获胜，包括初级组 CNDF 国家赛、高级组 CNDF 国家赛、BP 英国议会制辩论国家赛、美国国家辩论赛、牛津大学辩论赛和斯坦福世界学校邀请赛等。Noah 的专长是教授分析和论证的辩论技巧。他的教练理念专注于确保学生能够快速准确地分析问题并有效地阐明合理的解决方案。
Arsalan 拥有超过9年的辩论经验和教学经验。 作为 FDT 的辩论主管，他在他的学生中享有盛誉，这些学生曾斩获无数地区、省级乃至国际比赛的奖项。Arsalan拥有UBC政治学荣誉 学位，还担任丹⻨国家辩论队的教练，以及温哥华St. George’s学校辩论队的总教练。 Arsalan非常期待教授FDT的学生，希望帮助他们找到自己的声音!
Chelli 毕业于不列颠哥伦比亚大学政治学专业，近十年来一直投身于公共演讲、辩论和模拟联合国活动。 2018年，她被选为Alberta 省的首席代表， 参加加拿大国家辩论队的选拔赛。为了表彰她对辩论的热情和坚持，她被Alberta 省的教练们提名并获得了2019年Janet Garten Award 奖。 Chelli 也是 2016年加拿大国家演讲队的第一替补，在整个高中期间参加过无数国内和国际公共演讲比赛。2022年，Chelli 培养出了加拿大公共演讲大赛的冠军，她的两名学生晋级了公共演讲世界赛，并在多个类别中打入决赛。 Chelli 热爱自我表达，渴望培养年轻人的创造力和自信。她期待着进入 FDT 执教的第五年。
Behbod是FDT的资深讲师，毕业于耶鲁大学，获得了政治学学士学位。作为加拿大国家辩论队的前成员，他在2014年和2012年赢得了泛美和欧洲 公开赛的冠军，并在2014年进入了世界学校辩论 赛的半决赛。Behbod还在华盛顿特区工作过，最近，他作为一名专⻔研究司法腐败的记者在黎巴嫩工作。他很高兴能与FDT的学生们分享他丰富的经历。
Luna拥有多伦多大学教育硕士学位。她过去曾担任 ESL 讲师、教学设计和学生协调等工作。Luna工作的核心价值观包括同情心、成长和合作。她对教育有着真正的热情，对与不同文化背景的人交流、服务和教育有着浓厚的兴趣。作为 FDT 的招生助理，Luna 希望与家庭和学生建立并保持互相信赖的关系。
Dena 有超过14年的辩论经历，曾是加拿大国家辩论队的成员。她曾四次担任世界学校辩论锦标赛评委，2019年担任世界总决赛评委。Dena 还曾是世界排名第6的丹麦国家辩论队的联合教练，并两次获得了EFL最佳辩论队。 2017年，她作为辩手代表她的大学参加了世界大学辩论锦标赛。 Dena 在英国任教一年后，在 UCL 伦敦大学学院获得了教育、国际发展和健康促进硕士学位。她拥有 UBC 教育学学位，以及英语和政治学双学士学位。Dena很荣幸能成为FDT的学术总监，她热爱辩论，因为它能拓宽视野，促进世界各地人们之间的对话。
Frankie的辩论教练生涯始于他曾就读的高中 Burnaby Mountain Secondary, 在那里，他指导了一批辩手，巩固了该学校作为辩论界非常有竞争力的学校的声誉。
2011年，Frankie开始被任命为Crofton House学校的演讲和辩论总教练，培养出无数名赢得区级，省级，国家级甚至国际辩论赛的学生。他执教生涯的一大亮点是他带领9名最优秀的学生前往捷克参赛，且不负众望进入了决赛。 Frankie的学生赢得了德国EurOpen锦标赛、温哥华地区辩论赛、省法律基金会杯、欧洲之心锦标赛、UBC辩论赛、剑桥大学国际⻘年辩论赛等众多赛事奖项。
2016 年，Frankie创办了FDT学院，这是他所有教学经验的真正结晶。他希望这所学院不仅能继续取得成功，还能让他的学生拥有他所珍视的对辩论和演讲的热情。 Frankie还作为发言人，表演者，电视主持人活跃在舞台上。
Mehdi 刚从Carleton大学毕业，他拥有政治学学士学位，辅修法律。他是俱乐部的活跃辩手，在那里他打入了 2019 年加拿大议会国家赛，是 2019 年法国国家赛的决赛选手，并在 2020 年北美大学辩论锦标赛决赛中担任评委。在 2020-2021 年，他担任 CUSID 主席，负责管理加拿大所有大学的辩论。在辩论之外，Mehdi 喜欢看篮球、踢足球和讨论加拿大政治。他期待着帮助学生实现目标并提高他们的能力。
Moira 目前正在多伦多大学攻读商业学位，辅修人文地理和城市研究。她拥有超过七年的竞争性辩论和公共演讲经验，曾指导过从 4 岁到大学生的学生。她担任过无数高中和大学辩论赛的评委，并且是不列颠哥伦比亚大学小学辩论赛的副首席裁判。Moira 在高中时曾参加国家级的法语和英语辩论赛，现在仍旧活跃在大学辩论界。她的一些辩论成就包括在西安大略大学的 Central Novice 中进入半决赛，在渥太华大学的 Guidon Cup 中获得新手冠军，并在阿尔伯塔大学的 Pro-Am 锦标赛中赢得冠军团队。 Moira 精通加拿大高中和大学使用的所有辩论形式，包括加拿大国家辩论形式、英国议会、世界学校、交叉质询和加拿大议会制辩论。她热衷于帮助学生通过辩论找到自己的声音，并帮助他们走出舒适区。
Vivienne 是UBC大学视觉艺术和商业管理专业的二年级学生。除了负责完成 FDT 的日常工作外，她还喜欢与学生、客户和其他员工建立联系，以促进学院内的家庭式社区和积极的学习环境。她还花大量的时间在各种组织做志愿者，对与环境相关的事业有着浓厚的兴趣。在Vivienne 空闲时，她喜欢与朋友和家人共度时光、照顾她的宠物鸡、尝试新食谱以及亲近大自然。
Nicholas 是不列颠哥伦比亚大学物理和数学专业的学生。在过去的七年里，他一直在辩论，高中期间四次参加加拿大国家辩论赛，并在模拟联合国中取得了成功。 Nicholas 依旧活跃在大学辩论界，并在大型比赛中打入决赛，例如 Western IV 和 Hart House IV。Nicholas 还负责为 UBC 主办高中辩论赛。在 FDT 期间，Nicholas 看到他的学生取得了一些卓越的成就，他的一些学生在 2023 年晋级了加拿大国家辩论队。Nicholas 认为人们在享受辩论时最能提高辩论能力，他希望能帮助所有FDT 的学生发现对辩论的热情。
Anthony 在卡尔顿大学攻读国际经济政策博士学位。他拥有八年的辩论经验，能教授多种辩论形式，包括英国议会辩论、加拿大议会辩论、加拿大国家辩论和世界学校辩论。他经常在小学、高中和大学级别的国内和国际比赛中担任决赛裁判。作为一名能说流利的法语的辩手，Anthony 曾在省级赛的双语辩论赛中担任裁判，并为法语辩手教授辩论课。作为辩手参加比赛时，Anthony 曾参加过 Hart House IV 和 University of Southern California IV 等锦标赛。他曾代表卡尔顿大学参加2021年和2023年的世界大学辩论锦标赛，两次都名列前茅。 Anthony 非常珍惜在 FDT 的时光，他很高兴能继续帮助 FDT 学生找到自己的声音并实现梦想！
Matthew 在麦吉尔大学攻读法律学位。他在卡尔顿大学攻读本科和硕士学位期间，是一名活跃的辩论者，并于 2017 年赢得了北美大学辩论锦标赛 (NAUDC) 和加拿大英国议会辩论锦标赛。他还在 2018 年的墨西哥城 WUDC 上打入决赛。在法学院学习以来, Matthew 在一次全国模拟审判比赛中与来自十几所加拿大法学院学生竞争，最终获得了最佳辩手奖。自 2013 年以来，他一直参与教授和评判高中辩论，Matthew 很高兴能成为 FDT 团队的一员。
Victoria 正在不列颠哥伦比亚大学攻读政治学文学学士学位。 7 年来，她一直在参加辩论和公共演讲，并参加过加拿大国家级比赛和国际比赛。两年多来，她一直在 FDT 和她所在的高中指导学生进行辩论和公共演讲。这段经历使她在 2022 年 BC 省模拟审判锦标赛中获得第一名。她还在 2021 年加拿大国际公共演讲比赛中获得第三名，并在 2022 年哈佛世界学校辩论邀请赛中排名前 5%。Victoria 热衷于与新辩手分享她所学到的知识，并帮助学生找到自己对辩论和公共演讲的热情。
Jena Yue 是Collingwood的一名12年级学生。她是加拿大国家辩论队的现任成员，曾在英国议会初级组辩论省赛中担任首席发言者，并且在9年级时获得美国世界学校辩论赛的个人第 7 名。获得 U16国际独立学校公开演讲比赛（IISPSC）的冠军后，她进入了加拿大国家演讲队，并代表加拿大参加了2020年世界个人辩论和公开演讲锦标赛。在空闲时间，她喜欢画画，并成立了自己的非营利组织YAFA（青年艺术行动）。她迫不及待地想分享她的知识，帮助孩子们增强信心并发现他们的声音！
Alice 目前就读于哥伦比亚大学和巴黎政治学院的双学士学位课程，计划攻读政治学和国际关系学位。她打辩论已有七年，其中两年是作为加拿大国家辩论队的成员。作为辩手，Alice 在国内和国际上赢得了三十多个奖项。她是 NSDA 美国全国辩论锦标赛和英国议会省级锦标赛的冠军，打入了哈佛世界学校的半决赛和加拿大全国辩论锦标赛。此外，她还在加拿大省级辩论锦标赛和皇后大学辩论锦标赛等众多比赛中被评为最佳辩手前10名。Alice 非常高兴能在 FDT 教授聪明的年轻人。
Ellen是英属哥伦比亚大学政治学一年级的学生。在她的辩论生涯中，Ellen 曾前往多个国家参加竞争性辩论，并参加了许多国际比赛。她的一些亮点包括：2019 年 BC 省国家队预选赛的前三名，2019 年 UBC 秋季赛的冠军队和个人第一名，2019 年 LMW 地区赛的冠军队和个人第二名，以及 2019 年 打入BP 国家赛。Ellen打辩论赛有五年时间，并且在12年级时成为Crofton House学校辩论俱乐部的联合队长。Ellen有教授孩子的经验，更重要的是，她喜欢教育。辩论让学生跨越国界、文化和舒适区——Ellen对FDT 的辩手们的未来充满希望！
Diya 是杜伦大学哲学与政治专业的学生。在过去的六年里，她参加了无数国内和国际级别的演讲和辩论比赛，包括最近参加了在马德里举行的 WUDC 2023。她的成就包括在 2020 年香港辩论公开赛中获得高中生辩手第二名，以及在 2022 年哈佛世界学校邀请赛中获得前 2% 的辩手。她热爱辩论，对辩论教学也充满热情。当她空闲时，Diya 热衷于社会正义，并花时间与当地组织和政治运动合作。她将继续代表杜伦大学联盟协会参加辩论赛。
Noel 拥有超过 5 年的教练经验和 12 年的辩论赛经验。在圣玛丽大学获得应用经济学硕士学位后，Noel 还获得了卡尔顿大学商法文学学士学位。 Noel 拥有指导英国议会辩论、加拿大全国辩论、世界学校辩论、加拿大议会辩论和美式公共论坛辩论的经验，并担任 FDT 公共论坛课程的首席教练。他曾担任南京外国语学校哈佛辩论项目、张家港常春藤国际学校辩论项目的首席辩论教练，带领学生在各个级别的比赛中取得佳绩，包括夺得NSDA China Nationals 2020最佳辩手，以及 2019-2021 年 NSDA 中国地区比赛的许多个人和团体冠军。作为一名辩手，Noel 有着傲人的战绩。2017年他打入Lord Dorchester辩论锦标赛决赛，2019年他进入 Seagrams锦标赛半决赛，并多次作为首席进入高中和大学锦标赛决赛。
Rody 就读于卡尔加里大学，主修荣誉政治学和国际关系双学位，辅修法语和法律与社会。在过去的五年里，他作为辩手、裁判和教练积极活跃在辩论界。Rody 之前曾担任普林斯顿 IV、耶鲁 IV 和 WUDC 韩国等辩论赛的裁判。作为教练，Rody 教授了无数学生班课与私教课程，他的学生经常取得令人难以置信的成就：晋级Law Foundation Cup (BC省辩论省级赛)和初、高级组国家赛，赢得 Meadowridge，Burnaby 和 UBC HST 等辩论赛等等。他的学生在无数比赛中取得了令人印象深刻的团队或个人成绩，并通过演讲和辩论展示了他们的能力和信心的显著提高！作为常驻的模拟审判和模拟法庭教练，Rody 的学生在 Dominion Cup 和 Pacific Mock Trial 等比赛中被评为最佳证人和律师，甚至赢得了 2022 年高中模拟审判锦标赛。 Rody 在正式和非正式场合拥有超过 10 年的公共演讲经验，他很高兴能将他的知识和专长带到 FDT！
Zachary 毕业于 UBC 商学院，主修金融，辅修国际关系，专注于可持续发展和社会影响。他拥有超过 9 年的公共演讲和辩论竞赛经验，他高中的辩论队的队长。他教授大学水平的公共演讲课程，并在加拿大西部的 JDC West 的 UBC Sauder 团队中取得第一名。 Zachary 还参加了世界Scholar’s Cup 学者杯，在来自世界各地的近 1,600 名学生中个人排名第三。在过去的六年里，他继续指导数百名学生，帮助他们多次进入世界学者杯前10名，以及夺得四次世界学者杯世界冠军。他的学生赢得了无数国际演讲与辩论赛的冠军，其中一位在最近加入了加拿大国家演讲队和加拿大国家辩论队。Zachary 很高兴继续成为 FDT 的一员，他讲继续激励他的学生在辩论、公共演讲和学术方面达到更高的高度！
Alexander 拥有超过 10 年的辩论教练经验，他拥有麦吉尔大学历史和加拿大研究学位，辅修国际关系。自 FDT 成立以来，Alexander 一直在 FDT 担任演讲、辩论和模拟联合国的教练，他的许多学生赢得无数国际比赛，并进入加拿大国家辩论队。在整个高中期间，Alexander 都是 2012 年欧洲公开赛、2013 年欧洲之心和 2013 年加拿大全国辩论研讨会的冠军。在大学期间，Alexander 继续提高他的辩论技巧，赢得了 2016 年加拿大 BP 英国议会制辩论全国赛，入围 2016 年北美大学辩论锦标赛决赛，并担任多项北美比赛的首席裁判。
Kelly 正在不列颠哥伦比亚大学攻读政治学专业，辅修法律与社会。Kelly 拥有 5 年的辩论教学经验。在高中时，Kelly 参加了五年的辩论赛，并在12 年级时担任Little Flower Academy 学院辩论队长。Kelly 辩论生涯的高光是她在2019年打入英国议会制省级赛的决赛，并在2020年 Law Foundation Cup (BC省辩论省级赛) 中获得第三名！Kelly 还两次晋级国家级辩论赛，第一次是在 2019 年的英国议会辩论国家赛，第二次是在 2020 年的加拿大高级辩论国国家赛中。Kelly 特别喜欢教导年轻的孩子，并看着他们这些年来自信地成长！她也非常高兴能与所有年龄段的学生分享她的经验、对辩论的热情和对世界的了解！
Abigail 目前正在 UBC 攻读国际关系专业。她有九年的辩论比赛经验和六年辩论教练经验。在高中时，她是 2020 年加拿大全国辩论锦标赛的半决赛选手和 2018 年哈佛世界学校辩论锦标赛的第三名演讲者。大学时，Abigail 赢得了 Hugill 2020，在 2022 年加拿大议会制国家赛中打入半决赛，赢得了最佳辩手。Abigail 目前是丹麦国家辩论队的主教练，并在 2021 -2022 年担任 UBC 辩论协会主席。她还是Alberta省辩论和演讲协会的双语副总裁。在那个职位上，她帮助举办和评判双语辩论赛以及法语辩论赛。她的学生经常参加省级、国家级和世界级别的比赛，他们常常能晋级淘汰赛并赢得辩手奖的好名次。Abigail 很高兴能够与 FDT 学生分享她的经验和对辩论的热情，并期待帮助他们脱颖而出。
Angela 目前是加拿大国家辩论队的成员，她赢得了无数省级辩论赛和公众演讲比赛，并在加拿大全国辩论赛中获得第二名。在连续两次在全国公共演讲赛中获得即兴演讲第一名后，她代表加拿大国家演讲队参加了世界个人辩论和公共演讲锦标赛，并获得了最佳演讲者。Angela 喜欢帮助聪明的年轻人在辩论、公共演讲和模拟联合国中充分发挥潜力并取得成功。
Saara是多伦多大学三年级学生，主攻政治学专业，辅修城市研究和亚洲研究双学位。高中时， Saara是Crofton House学校辩论队的联合队⻓， 她不仅是加拿大国家辩论队的成员，还曾三次参加哈佛世界学校锦标赛，并在2018年获得冠军， 她还在英国议会制全国锦标赛中进入半决赛，在UBC春季高中辩论赛中获得两次个人奖第一名。Saara在 大学里也是一名活跃的辩手，她是北美最大和最顶级的大学辩论队——多伦多大学Hart House辩论俱乐部的现役主席，并且将在这个夏天参加世界大学辩论锦标赛赛。最值得一提的是，这将是Saara在FDT执教的第四年，她很高兴能与一个优秀的团队合作。
Jiayin is currently a fourth-year undergraduate student at the University of British Columbia, studying Honours Behavioural Neuroscience. At FDT, she is primarily responsible for greeting students and parents, and working with other office staff to communicate about the academy’s day-to-day occurrences. Outside of work, she enjoys music, writing, and helping out with psychology research. Jiayin has been an office assistant at FDT since September 2019 and enjoys contributing to the wholesome learning environment FDT provides for their students.
John is a third-year student studying Criminology at Simon Fraser University. John began working as an office assistant at FDT in the Fall of 2019. He enjoys engaging with clients and students, as well as working with management to promote a successful and dedicated debate academy. In his personal life, John serves as a basketball coach, finding success in winning multiple championships and tournaments. He also enjoys promoting sports as a way of engaging the youth at his former high school. John is excited to be a part of the FDT family and to help facilitate the day to day of its successful programs.
Mehdi is a recent graduate of Carleton University with a Bachelor’s in Political Science with a minor in Law. He was an active debater for the club where he broke to the 2019 Canadian Parliamentary Nationals, was a finalist for the 2019 French Nationals and judged the 2020 North American University Debating Championship finals. In 2020-2021, he served as president for CUSID which governs debate for all Canadian universities. Outside of debate, Mehdi enjoys watching basketball, playing soccer, and discussing Canadian politics. He is looking forward to helping students reach their goals and improve their abilities.
Nicholas is a student studying Physics and Maths at the University of British Columbia. He has been debating for the past seven years and competed in Canadian Nationals four times during high school, and also found success in Model UN at this time. Nicholas has continued debating in university and broke at large university tournaments, such as Western IV and Hart House IV. He is also in charge of several debate tournaments hosted by UBC. During his time at FDT, Nicholas has seen his students accomplish some great things, most recently with some advancing to Canadian Nationals in 2023. Nicholas believes people best improve at debate when they enjoy it, and he hopes he can help all of his students at FDT find their passion for debate as he has.
Moira is currently completing a Business degree with minors in Human Geography and Urban Studies at the University of Toronto. She has over seven years of competitive debate and public speaking experience and has coached students from 4 years old to university students. She has judged numerous high school and university debate tournaments and was the Deputy Chief Adjudicator for the University of British Columbia’s elementary school tournament. Moira competed at the national level in both French and English in high school and now continues to compete in the university debate circuit. Some of her university debate achievements include being a semi-finalist at the University of Western Ontario’s Central Novice, Novice Champions at The University of Ottawa’s Guidon Cup, and winning Champion team at the University of Alberta’s Pro-Am Tournament. Moira is well-versed in all formats used at the high school and university level in Canada, including Canadian National Debate Format, British Parliamentary, Worlds, Cross Examination, and Canadian Parliamentary. She is passionate about helping students find their voice through debate and helping them step out of their comfort zones.
Matthew is in the last year of his law degree at McGill University. He was an active debater during his undergraduate and master’s degrees at Carleton University, where he won the North American Universities Debating Championship (NAUDC) and Canadian British Parliamentary debating championships in 2017. He also broke at Mexico City WUDC in 2018. Since starting law school, Matthew won the award of the top oralist at a national mock trial competition, where he competed against over a dozen Canadian law schools. He has been involved in coaching and judging high school debate since 2013 and is excited to be a part of the FDT team.
Anthony is beginning his doctoral studies in International Economic Policy at Carleton University. With eight years of experience in debate, Anthony has experienced a number of debate formats, including British Parliamentary, Canadian Parliamentary, Canadian National Debate, and World Schools. He regularly adjudicates the Finals of national and international tournaments at the grade school, high school, and university level. As a fluent French speaker, Anthony has adjudicated bilingual debate rounds at provincial championships and taught debate lessons for francophone debaters. When competing as a debater, Anthony has reached the out rounds of tournaments like the Hart House IV and the University of Southern California IV. He has represented Carleton University at the World University Debating Championships in 2021 and 2023, ranking impressively both times. Anthony has cherished his time in FDT, and is excited to continue helping FDT students find their voice and achieve their dreams!
Ellen is a first year Political Science student at the University of British Columbia. Throughout her debate career, Ellen has travelled to numerous countries for competitive debate, and attended many international tournaments. Some highlights include: Top Three at the BC Qualifiers 2019, Champion Team and Speaker at UBC Falls 2019, Champion Team and Second Place Speaker at LMW Regionals 2019, and breaking team at BP Nationals 2019. Ellen has been competitively debating for five years, and was the co-captain of the Debate Club at Crofton House School her senior year. She has experience coaching kids, and–more importantly–enjoys spending her time instructing. Debate brings students across borders, cultures, and comfort zones–Ellen can’t wait to see where FDT’s debaters will end up!
Diya is a Philosophy and Politics student at Durham University. She has competed at the national and international level in both Speech and Debate for the past six years, most recently including WUDC 2023, which took place in Madrid. Her accomplishments include 2nd place overall high school speaker at the 2020 Hong Kong Debate Open, and placing in the top 2% of speakers at the 2022 Harvard World Schools Invitational. While she holds a deep love for debate, she has found a passion in coaching. When she isn’t debating, Diya is passionate about social justice, and spends her time working with local organizations and political movements. She continues to debate competitively for the Durham University Union Society.
Alice is currently enrolled in the Dual BA Program between Columbia University and Sciences Po where plans to pursue degrees in Political Science and International Relations. She’s been involved in debate for seven years, two of which she served as a member of Team Canada. As a speaker, Alice has won over thirty awards both nationally and internationally. She was the Champion of the NSDA US National Debating Championships and the British Parliamentary Provincial Championships. She has also reached the Semifinals at Harvard World Schools and the Canadian National Debating Championships. Furthermore, she has been named a Top 10 speaker at numerous Canadian events such as the Provincial Debating Championships and the Queens University Debating Championships. Alice is beyond excited to teach and learn from bright young minds at FDT.
Catherine Wang is a student at McGill University, pursuing an honours in International Development. Catherine has coached debate for a total of 7 years, beginning with coaching her high school team whom she lead to become the number one high school team in the region. She has experience coaching students aged 6-17 with experience levels ranging from beginner to advanced. Competitively, she has been involved in debate for over 9 years, competing at numerous tournaments. Notably, she has ranked as the two-time Regional Champion in the Lower Mainland, 1st place grade-divided speaker at the BC Provincial Championships, and UBC HST Finalist. Furthermore, Catherine appreciates the art of public speaking, having founded her high school’s slam poetry team and led them to victory in the PoetryInVoice Vancouver Championships
Jena Yue is a high school senior at Collingwood school. She is a current member of the Canadian National Debate Team, has finished as top speaker at the Junior British Parliamentary Debate Provincials, and was the 7th place speaker in the United States for Worlds School Debating when she was only in Grade 9. After being the champion of the U16 International Independent School’s Public Speaking Competition (IISPSC), she was on the Canadian National Speech Team and represented Canada at the 2020 World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championship. In her free time, she loves to paint, and has founded her own non-profit organization called YAFA (Youth Art for Action). She can’t wait to share her knowledge and help kids grow their confidence and find their voice!
Angela is in her senior year at University Hill Secondary School. A current member of the Canadian National Debate Team, she has won both Debate Provincials and Speech Provincials and finished as the top speaker of Junior British Parliamentary Debate Nationals. After placing first in both Persuasive Speaking and Impromptu Speaking at the National Public Speaking Championship, she represented the Canadian National Speech Team at the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championship, where she finished as the debate champion. Angela is extremely excited to help introduce bright young minds to the opportunities and skills that she has gained through debate and speech.
Rody is a student at the University of Calgary pursuing a double major in Honours Political Science and International Relations, with minors in French and Law and Society. He has been actively involved in debate for the past five years as a debater, judge, and coach. Rody has previously been an adjudicator at tournaments such as the Princeton IV, Yale IV, and WUDC Korea. In his capacity as a coach, Rody has worked with countless students in group and private settings, and his students have often gone on to achieve incredible things, including qualifying for the Law Foundation Cup and Senior and Junior Nationals, winning tournaments such as Meadowridge, Burnaby, and UBC HST, posting impressive speaking results, and demonstrating drastic improvements in their capabilities and confidence with speech and debate! As the resident Mock Trial and Moot Court coach, Rody’s students have placed as Top Witnesses and Lawyers at tournaments such as the Dominion Cup and the Pacific Mock Trial, and even winning the 2022 High School Mock Trial Tournament. With over 10 years of public speaking experience in formal and informal circumstances, Rody is excited to bring his knowledge and expertise to FDT!
Noel is a debate coach with over 5 years of coaching experience and 12 years of experience in competitive debate. Having completed a Master’s degree in Applied Economics at the University of Saint Mary’s, Noel has also received a Bachelor of Arts in Business Law from Carleton University. Noel has experience coaching British Parliamentary Debate, Canadian National Debate, World Schools Debate, Canadian Parliamentary Debate, and Public Forum Debate, and is acting as the lead coach of FDT’s Public Forum Program. He acted as the head debate teacher for the Harvard Debate Program at Nanjing Foreign Language School, and Zhangjiagang Ivy International School Debate Program, with his students having great success at all levels of competition, including coaching the top middle school speaker at NSDA China Nationals 2020, and many individual and team champions at NSDA China regional competitions between 2019-2021. As a debater, Noel had great competitive success, having reached the finals of the Lord Dorchester Debating Championships in 2017, and reaching the quarter-finals of the Seagrams Debating Championships in 2019, as well as being selected to chair numerous high school and university tournament finals.
Zachary Goldthorpe is in his fifth and final year at the UBC Sauder School of Business, majoring in Finance with a minor in International Relations. He has over seven years of competitive public speaking and debate experience under his belt, leading his high school’s debate team, teaching a university-level public speaking course, and breaking first in Western Canada on the UBC Sauder team for JDC West. Zachary has also competed in the World Scholar’s Cup where he individually ranked 3rd place overall out of nearly 1,600 students from around the world. Since then, he has gone on to coach hundreds of students throughout the past four years, including multiple top 10 placements and four world champions in the World Scholar’s Cup, as well as countless international tournament winners in speech and debate. Zachary continues to inspire his students to reach greater heights in debating, public speaking, and academics and is excited to continue being a part of FDT!
Alexander has over 9 years of coaching experience and is completing his Joint Honours degree in History & Canadian Studies at McGill University, with a minor in International Relations. Debating throughout high school, Alexander was the champion of European Open 2012, Heart of Europe 2013, and Canadian National Debate Seminar 2013. In university, Alexander has continued to advance his debate skills, winning the 2016 Canadian BP Debate National Championships, and being a finalist at the 2016 North American University Debate Championships, as well as organizing many tournaments. Alexander has coached Speech, Debate, and Model UN with FDT since its inception and looks forward to continuing to develop students’ skills and abilities.
Kelly is a pursuing a Major in Political Science and a Minor in Law and Society at the University of British Columbia. Kelly has 5 years of coaching experience. In high school Kelly debated competitively for five years and served as the Little Flower Academy Debate Captain in her senior year. Her favourite debate highlights are breaking as a finalist at BP Provincials in 2019 and placing third at the Law Foundation Cup in 2020! Kelly also made nationals twice, firstly at the British Parliamentary Debate Nationals in 2019 and then at the Canadian Senior Debate Nationals in 2020. Kelly especially enjoys working with younger students and watching them grow in confidence throughout the years! She is incredibly excited to share her experience, enthusiasm for debate, and knowledge about the world with students of all ages!
Abigail is currently studying International Relations at UBC. She has been involved in the debate world for nine years and has been coaching for six. In high school, she was a semi-finalist at the 2020 Canadian National Debate Championships and third place speaker at the 2018 Harvard World Schools Debating Championship. As a university debater, Abigail won Hugill 2020, and was a semi-finalist at and the top speaker of Canadian Parliamentary Nationals 2022. Abigail is currently the head coach of the Danish National Debate Team, and was the president of the UBC Debate Society in 2021-22. She is also the VP Bilingual of the Alberta Debate and Speech Association. In that position, she helps to run and judge bilingual tournaments and tournaments run entirely in French. Her students often attend provincial, national, and international tournaments, where they frequently advance to elimination rounds and win speaker awards. Abigail is thrilled to be able to share her experience and passion for debate with FDT students and looks forward to helping them excel.
Saara is a third year student at the University of Toronto studying Political Science, Urban Studies and Contemporary Asian Studies. In high school, Saara was Co-Captain of the Crofton House Debate Team, where in addition to being selected for the Canadian National Debating Team, she won the Harvard Worlds Schools Championships, made semifinals of the British Parliamentary National Championships, ranked as the best speaker twice at the UBC Spring High School Championships, and represented her country at the Worlds Schools Championships. An active debater in university as well, Saara is the current President of the Hart House Debate Club at the University of Toronto, one of the largest and most successful collegiate debate teams in North America, and will be competing at the World Universities Debating Championships this summer. Perhaps most notably, this will be Saara’s fourth year coaching at FDT – she is very excited to continue working with such a fantastic group of staff and students!
Noah is a Masters student at the University of British Columbia studying Philosophy, with a focus on Ethics and Philosophy of Mind. He also holds a BA in Honours Philosophy from UBC, where he studied on a full-ride scholarship. Noah started debating in high school and went on to win Top Speaker at Canadian Nationals in addition to making elimination rounds at a number of international tournaments. He has also served as a Chief Adjudicator for 21 different tournaments, including three different National Championships. Noah has been coaching debate for seven years. He was the Training Director of the UBC Debate Society in 2019/2020, and the coach of the Danish National Debate Team in 2021/2022. Eleven of Noah’s current and former students have made Team Canada. His students have also won or top spoke at major international tournaments including Junior CNDF Nationals, Senior CNDF Nationals, BP Nationals, US Nationals, Oxford Finals Day, and Stanford World Schools Invitational, among others. Noah’s specialty is teaching analysis and argumentation skills; his coaching philosophy is focused on making sure that students can quickly and precisely analyze problems and effectively articulate well-reasoned solutions.
Luna graduated from the University of Toronto with a Master’s degree in Education. In her past roles as an ESL instructor, an instructional designer, and a guidance coordinator, the key values that have guided her actions include compassion, growth, and collaboration. She has a true passion for education and a deep interest in interacting with, serving for, and educating people with diverse cultural backgrounds. As the Assistant Director of Admissions at FDT, Luna hopes to build and maintain trustworthy relationships with families and students.
With a Master’s in Policy and Management, Ghazal serves as FDT’s Director of Operations. Ghazal spent five years developing and delivering international education programming in the regions of East Africa and the South Pacific. Coupled with her background in social business development, Ghazal brings dynamic experiences and perspectives to the academy. Entering her fourth year at FDT, she wears many hats in her role and is so proud to be a part of this growing community!
With over 30 years experience in sales and marketing, Cathy brings a wealth of business experience to FDT. She is passionate about giving parents and students the FDT experience and believes in enriching the lives of students through speech. Debate and speech are life long skills for students in all facets of their life from elementary school to university. When Cathy is not meeting with parents, she can be found planning events. She is an avid volunteer and the President of the Optimist Club, Past President of the Arts Center, and most recently wrote a book. Please email her anytime to find out more about FDT Academy!
Tonya has managed FDT for the past four years and is a pivotal part of the growing team. She is the go-to person for all student and parent inquiries, tournament preparation steps, and much more! Tonya has travelled to various places around the world, bringing debaters to tournaments in truly stunning locations, including Cape Town and Bangkok. She is excited to see where FDT will take her next!
Chelli is a recent Political Science graduate from the University of British Columbia who has been involved in public speaking, debate, and model United Nations for almost a decade. In 2018, she was selected as Alberta’s top-place delegate to proceed to tryouts for Canada’s National Debate Team. In recognition of her commitment to Alberta’s debate program, Chelli won the 2019 Janet Garten Award. Chelli was also the first alternate for Team Canada Speech in 2016, having competed at a national and international public speaking level throughout high school. Last year, Chelli coached the Canadian Public Speaking Champion to victory and two of her students qualified for Public Speech Worlds, where they both broke to finals in multiple categories. Chelli has an affinity for self-expression and a desire to cultivate creativity and confidence in young minds. She looks forward to her entering her fifth year of coaching at FDT.
Behbod is FDT’s Head of Curriculum and a senior instructor. An alumnus of Yale University, Behbod graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. A former member of the Canadian national debate team, he won the Pan-American and EurOpen Debating Championships in 2014 and 2012 and reached the semifinals of the World School’s Debating Championships in 2014. Behbod has also worked in Washington, DC, and most recently in Lebanon, as a journalist specializing in judicial corruption. He’s excited to share his diverse experiences with the students at FDT.
Arsalan has over 9 years of experience competing in and coaching debate. As FDT’s Head of Debate, he has developed a strong reputation amongst his students, as many of them have won events at the regional, provincial and international level. Arsalan is the Head Coach of Debate at St. George’s School in Vancouver and is an alumnus of the University of British Columbia, with a degree in Honours Political Science. Arsalan is excited to work with FDT students and help them find their voice.
Dena has been debating for 14 years and was a member of the Canadian National Debate Team. She has judged at the World Schools Debate Championship four times, breaking as a judge and judging the Worlds Grand Final in 2019. Dena was also co-coach of the Danish National Debate Team, which has ranked 6th in the world and won Top EFL team twice. She attended the World Universities Debate Championship herself as a debater in 2017, representing her university. Dena completed a Master’s degree in Education, International Development and Health Promotion at UCL, after teaching in England for a year. She has a degree in Education from UBC, as well as a double major Bachelor’s degree in English and Political Science. She is excited to continue to serve as Academy Director and loves debating for its ability to broaden perspectives and facilitate dialogue between people from all over the world.
Frankie began his debate coaching career at his former public high school, where he coached a group of debaters who cemented the school’s reputation as one of the best debate schools in the Lower Mainland.
In 2011, Frankie was named the Head Speech and Debate Coach of Crofton House School and trained numerous students to win Regional, Provincial, National, and International Championships. His breakthrough moment was when he brought 9 of his top students to the Czech Republic, where they defied expectations and advanced to the final round. Frankie’s students have won the EurOpen Championship in Germany, the Vancouver Regional Debate Championship, the Provincial Law Foundation Cup, the Heart of Europe Championship, the UBC Debate Tournament, the International Competition for Young Debaters at Cambridge University, and more.
One of Frankie’s personal goals was realized when the Danish School Board selected him to coach the National Debate Team of Denmark. In a matter of just a few years, that team grew to become one of the most competitive in the world.
In 2016 Frankie founded FDT Academy, a true culmination of all of his experiences as a debater and esteemed coach. Frankie also works as a keynote speaker, performer, and TV Host.